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Palaces, museums and important places to visit in istanbul

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  • Palaces, museums and important places to visit in istanbul

    ISTANBUL, is the most populous city of Turkey and the heart of the trade life is here. Many companies have their headquarters as the financial center. It is an important cultural center that has preserved its importance in every period of history and has been the capital of the empires.
    The Bosphorus is one of the most important sightseeing places in Istanbul. It is one of the most important sightseeing places in Istanbul.


    Istanbul is Turkey's most populous, most important economic and cultural city. In terms of economic magnitude, 34th in the world comes first in Europe according to the order made considering the municipal boundaries in terms of population.
    Istanbul is located in the north-west of Turkey, along the Marmara coast and the Bosphorus, to surround the Golden Horn. Istanbul is an intercontinental city, the European side is called the European Side or the Rumeli Side, and the Asian Side is called the Anatolian Side. In the history, the western boundaries of Istanbul, which was first established on the peninsula on which the Marmara Sea, the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn were built on three sides, constituted the Istanbul Walls. In the process of development and growth, the city has 39 cities, 4 of which have been enlarged four times, each time by building the city walls to the west. There are a total of 40 municipalities within the boundaries of the metropolitan municipality.
    One of the oldest cities in the world, Istanbul, M.S. The Roman Empire between 330 and 395, the Eastern Roman Empire between 395 - 1204 and 1261 - 1453, the Latin Empire between 1204 and 1261 and finally the Ottoman Empire between 1453 and 1922. Moreover, from 1517, when the caliphate passed through the Ottoman Empire, until 1924 when it was abolished,
    Istanbul became the center of Islam.
    Hagia Sophia Museum






    The Byzantine Emperor I by Justinian I. M.S. 532-537 Between the years has built the old city center in the historic peninsula of Istanbul basilica is planned patriarch cathedral, the receipt by the Turks in Istanbul in 1453 Fatih Sultan Mehmet was converted into a mosque, and today serves as a museum.
    Hagia Sophia is a domed basilica type building that combines the basilica plan and the central plan in architectural terms and is considered as an important turning point in the history of architecture with the features of the dome passage and the supporting system.
    The word "sofia" in the name of the building comes from the word sophos, meaning "wisdom" in ancient Greek, not the name of anyone. Thus, "Hagia Sophia" name "holy wisdom" or "divine wisdom" is the means, Orthodox denomination is considered one of the three attributes of God. 6 Miletus of the famous architect century Isidore and Tralles'l the Hagia Sophia that Anthemius Manage construction of the where about 10,000 workers and Justinian is said to spend a large fortune for this job. this is a very old building, some of the columns used in making a feature, doors and stone is that there are brought from older buildings and temples from the building. Byzantine era Constantinople patriarch of the patriarch church and Hagia Sophia, which became the center of the Eastern Orthodox Church, naturally contained a large collection of "sacred relics" at one time.
    After 1453 converted into a church mosque Ottoman sultan Fatih Sultan of mosaic with large Hoşgör shown by Mehmet has not been destroyed, including human figures (without it is left as is), only covered with a thin plaster and mosaics beneath centuries of plaster could get rid of so natural and artificial destruction. While the mosque was transformed into a museum, a part of the plaster was removed and the mosaics were again taken to daylight. In short, people all over the world today owes a person to see these mosaics: that the art of the Ottoman sultan who loves and respects other religions Fatih Sultan Mehmet. The Hagia Sophia building, which is seen today, is also known as the Third Haghia Sophia since it was the third church built in the same time. The first two churches collapsed during the rebellions. The central dome of Hagia Sophia, which is the largest dome of its time, collapsed several times during the Byzantine period, has ever since the collapse of the retaining wall to add Mimar Sinan building.

    Yerebatan Cistern


    The Yerebatan Cistern, located in the middle of the Historical Peninsula, was built by the Byzantine Emperor Justinianus (527-565) in 542 AD to meet the water requirement of the Great Palace. Due to its splendor among the marble columns rising from the water, it is also referred to as the Yerebatan Palace by the public. It is reported that the name of Basilica (Basilica) passing in foreign sources comes from the Ilius Basilica near the cistern.
    Topkapi Palace





    Istanbul Sarayburnu'da, 400 years of the 600-year history of the Ottoman Empire, used as the
    administrative center of the state and the Ottoman Sultans in the palace is the Saraydir. Over a period of time, nearly 4,000 people have been living.
    Topkapi Palace was built by Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror in 1478 and became the official residence of the Ottoman sultans and administrative center for 380 years until Abdulmecit built Dolmabahçe Palace. Located in an area of ​​700.000 m.² in the year of foundation, the present area of ​​the palace is 80.000 m².
    The Topkapi Palace was evacuated together with the people of the palace starting to live in Dolmabahçe Palace, Yıldız Palace and other palaces. After being abandoned by the sultan, the Topkapi Palace, where many officials lived, never lost its importance. The palace was repaired from time to time. During the month of Ramadan, a special importance was given to the annual maintenance of the Office of the Holy Relations which was visited by the sultan and his family.
    Fatih Sultan Mehmed initiated the construction of Topkapi Palace in 1465.
    For the first time, the Topkapi Palace ran into the era of Abdülmecit, literally opening up like a museum. At that time the goods of the Topkapı Palace Treasure were shown to the English ambassador. Afterwards, the old monuments in the Topkapı Palace Treasure become a tradition to show foreigners and in the time of Abdülaziz, glass displays are made in amphora style. Old works in the Treasure begin to be displayed with foreigners in these windows. II. Abdulhamid was supposed to open the Topkapi Palace Treasure-i Humayun's visit to the people on Sunday and Tuesdays, although this was not possible.
    Topkapi Palace, which was connected to the Istanbul Âsâr-ı Atika Museum Directorate to be opened to the public on April 3, 1924 by the order of Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, first started to serve as Treasury Kethüdalığı and then Treasury Directorate. Today, it continues to serve with the name of Topkapı Palace Museum Directorate.
    After some minor repairs were made in 1924 and the necessary administrative measures were taken to visit the museum, Topkapı Palace was opened as a museum on 9 October 1924. The sections opened at that time are the Kubbealti, the Supply Chamber, the Mecidiye Mansion, the Hekimbasi Chamber, the Mustafa Pasha Mansion and the Baghdad Mansion.
    Today, the palace attracting large tourist masses is at the top of the historical monuments in Istanbul Historical Peninsula, which entered the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985. Today it serves as a museum.

    Blue Mosque



    It was built between 1609-1616 by sultan I Ahmet on the historical peninsula of Istanbul, by Architect Sedefkâr Mehmet Aga. The mosque is called "Blue Mosque" because it is decorated with blue, green and white colored Iznik tiles, and half dome and big dome are decorated with blue weighted pencil works. Hagia Sophia was transformed into a glass museum in 1934, reaching the position of the main mosque of Istanbul.
    Actually Sultan Ahmet Mosque is one of the biggest building complexes in Istanbul together with the mosque. This complex consists of a mosque, medreseler, künkar kasrı, arasta, shops, baths, fountains, baths, tombs, caves, bazaarbis, imaretthane and rented rooms. Some of these structures have not reached the day-to-day.
    The most important aspect of Yapi's architectural and artistic consideration is that it is decorated with more than 20.000 Iznik tiles. The ornaments of these tiles used traditional plant motifs in yellow and blue tones, making it more than just a place of worship. The place of worship is 64 x 72 meters. The diameter of the central dome at a height of 43 meters is 23.5 meters. The inside of the glass is illuminated with more than 200 colored glass. The writings were written by Seyyid Kasım Gubari of Diyarbakır. It forms a complex together with the surrounding structures and Sultanahmet is the first minaret of Turkey with six minarets.

    Hippodrome






    The remains of the Byzantine period, with very little remnants of the daylight, were built around the important buildings and monuments of the Hippodrome (Sultanahmet Square). The hippodrome in the period of the Roman Empire and later the Byzantine Empire continued its importance as a meeting, entertainment, excitement and sports center for 10 centuries.
    Alongside the car races, there were musician ensembles, dancers, acrobats, fighting shows with wild animals, and meetings. For all these activities, there were plenty of vacations during the Roman period. In the form of a giant U-shaped hippodrome, on the eastern side of the hippodrome, there were 4 bronze horses on the roof, in the shape of a balcony, the emperor's lodge. At the center was a low wall, dividing the sandy beach of the hypodrome into two, racing around the cars, on this wall were statues of abriders and famous horse racers and their horses brought from various parts of the empire. A renowned car racer floated in all the possible financial possibilities. The riders were divided into teams that also had political forces such as green-blue-yellow-red. Time, time, politics confused the races, the struggles of mutual powers could turn into terrible massacres. The hippodrome came up with three monuments that rose up to 4-5 meters and remained at the daily level.
    These are the Knitted Obelisk, the Obelisk brought from Egypt and the Serpent Column brought from the Temple of Apollo in Delphi. In the Ottoman era, in this square, various festivals and demonstrations were arranged, sometimes like the rich shows of the old days. West of the Hippodrome, opposite the Sultan Ahmet Mosque, the grand vizier of Kanuni, the Ibrahim Pasha Palace, Is the only example of the wealthy and typical private palaces that arrive daily. This beautiful structure is open to the public as a Museum of Turkish and Islamic Works. From the hippodrome, the day-to-day south-south remains. It is a brick structure equipped with large arches. In subsequent periods, the Hippodrome stone blocks and columns were all used in other structures. Hippodrome entrance to the right of the park 4-5 yy. The remains of private palaces belonging to the Byzantine Church of Aya and the remains of the Byzantine Church of Aya.
    During the Ottoman period, the Janissary rebellions took place in this region, for forty days and forty nights, princes circumcised weddings, festivals were held here. The 1920 Sultanahmet rally where Halide Edip speaks against the occupation in Istanbul was also held here.




    The Grand Bazaar is one of the largest and oldest bazaars in the world, located in the center of Istanbul. It is said that during the peak times of the day, there are half a million people in close proximity.
    The Grand Bazaar's foundation was laid in 1461. Like a giant labyrinth, the Kapal Bazaar with 66 streets up to 30,700 square meters and 4,000 shops is a unique center for Istanbul to be seen.

    This site, resembling a city, covered with the whole, develops and grows over time. Until recently, there were 5 mosques, 1 school, 7 fountains, 10 wells, 1 stream, 1 family, 1 fountain, 22 doors, 17 inns. It was built by Fatih Sultan Mehmet. In the following centuries, around the two old buildings covered by a thick walled, dome-shaped dome from the 15th century, covered streets of the developing streets became annexed and became a shopping center. In the past, this was a highly respected bazaar where commercials and ethics were highly respected, where certain professions were located on every street, and their handcrafted manufacturing (manifacture) was under strict supervision. All sorts of precious fabrics, jewelery, weapons, antique goods were offered by the generations specializing in generations, with complete confidence. Even though the Grand Bazaar, which suffered an earthquake and a few major fires in the last century, has been repaired like an old one, its past features have changed.
    The width of all the shops was built in the same way. In each street, the masters of the different products were found in the form of loncalar (tiredness, slippers, etc.) The competition between the sellers was strictly forbidden. Even a master could not process a product by bringing his stand to the front of the shop and showing it to the crowd. The price of the products could not be set higher than the state determined.
    Istanbul Archaeological Museums



    T. C. The Istanbul Archaeological Museums, which are connected to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, are located in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, on the slope of Osman Hamdi Bey, which emerges from Gülhane Park to Topkapi Palace. The reason for the multiple use of the name is that it has three separate museums, namely the Archaeological Museum, the Old Oriental Museum, and the Chinese Pavilion Museum, under its administration.

    It is possible to visit the magnificent beauty garden of the museum and three separate buildings in the garden within the Istanbul Archeology Museums. The Istanbul Archaeological Museums, which are home to various works left over from civilizations that have left their mark on different periods of history, are among the top ten museums designed and used as museum buildings in the world. It is also Turkey's first museum-organized institution. In addition to the stunning collections it has, it also has historical and natural preservation with the architecture and garden of museum buildings.

    Bosphorus




    The Bosphorus is the water bridge connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of ​​Marmara. It generally extends in the northeast-southwest direction and divides the city of Istanbul into the European side and the Anatolian side. The settlement area spread on both sides of the Bosphorus is called Bosphorus.
    It is called the Turkish Straits along with the Bosphorus, the Sea of ​​Marmara and the Dardanelles, and is regarded as one of the natural borders that separates Europe and Asia. According to the Istanbul Harbor Regulation which entered into force on May 1, 1982, the line connecting the northern border of the Istanbul Strait to the Anatolian Lighthouse of Rumeli Feneri; And the southern boundary is defined as the line connecting Ahırkapı Lighthouse to Kadikoy İnciburnu Lighthouse.
    The borders of the Bosphorus have been home to various civilizations throughout history and grew up in 685 BC, when the Greeks from Megara developed by establishing a city-state in the region called the historical peninsula. It is one of the symbols of Istanbul which is the capital city of the East Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire and which is today the greatest city of the Republic of Turkey and is used as one of the leading figures in the city and in the foreign introductions of the country.
    The Bosphorus and Fatih Sultan Mehmet suspension bridges are located on the Istanbul Strait, which is the narrowest passage through which international sea transport can be made. These bridges connect the two sides of Istanbul, as well as the transit point between the continent of Europe and the continent of Asia. The Bosphorus, which is one of the key points of public transport in Istanbul, is also supported by intercontinental transportation, sea buses, ferries carrying cargo, passenger vehicles, city lines, and passenger engines. The Marmaray project will be an uninterrupted railway line between the two continents and it will be possible to travel from London to Beijing using only iron railway.
    The Bosphorus is the only way to reach the Mediterranean for Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia and Ukraine, which are on the Black Sea coast. The sovereignty rights of the Bosphorus along with the Çanakkale Strait and the Sea of ​​Marmara are determined by the Straits Agreement signed on 20 July 1936 Was given to Turkey in the light of rules.




    Rumeli Fortress


    Rumeli Hisarı The fortress which gives the name of the place where Istanbul is located in the Sarıyer district of Bosphorus. It was built by Fatih Sultan Mehmet in front of the Anatolian Fortress on the Anatolian side in order to prevent attacks from north of the Bosporus before the conquest of Istanbul. This is the narrowest point of the throat. Rumeli Hisari Concerts have been held in the venue for many years.
    The Rumeli Fortress covers an area of ​​30 acres. It is built on the narrowest and driest part of the 600 meters of the Bosphorus in front of the Anadolu Hisarı. The three large towers of the fortress, completed in a short period of 90 days, have the world's biggest castles.
    The name of Rumeli Hisari is Kulle-i Cedide in Fatih foundations; Yenice Hisar in his history; Kemalpaşazade, Aşıkpaşazade and Nişancı pass in the history as Boğazkesen Hisarı.

    Fortres construction started on April 15, 1452. Fatih Sultan Mehmet himself undertook the construction of the division of the work, which was given to the supervision of a pashant who built each section, and the construction of the part falling to the sea side. When viewed from the sea, Saruca Pasha on the right hand side of the building, Zaganos Pasha on the left side, and Halil Pasha on the side of the coast guard. The towers here bear the names of these pashas. The construction of the Hisar was completed on 31 August 1452.
    The timbers used in the construction of the fortress were obtained from Iznik and Ereğli in the Black Sea, from stones and lime from various parts of Anatolia and from ruined Byzantine structures around the spolles. According to architect E. H. Ayverdi, there were approximately 300 craftsmen, 700-800 workers, 200 caravans, boatmen, transporters and other crew members in the construction of the fortress. The work volume of the work, covering an area of ​​60,000 square meters, is about 57,700 cubic meters.
    Rumelihisari has three large and small Zaganos Pasha and 13 large and small burcu in the name of Saruca Pasha, Halil Pasha and Zaganos Pasha. Saruca Pasha and Halil Pasha towers with 9 floors and Zağanos Pasha Tower with 8 floors together with ground floors. Saruca Pasha Tower is 23,30 meters in diameter, 7 meters in wall thickness and 28 meters in height. Zaganos Pasha Tower's diameter is 26.70 meters, wall thickness is 5.70 meters, height is 21 meters. Halil Paşa Tower has a diameter of 23.30 meters, a wall thickness of 6.5 meters and a height of 22 meters.
    The Rumeli Fortress suffered great damage in the 1509 Great Istanbul Earthquake but was immediately repaired. In 1746 the wooden part of the fire was destroyed. Hisar again III. It was repaired during the reign of Selim (1789-1807). When the wooden cones covering the towers of the fortress are demolished, they are filled with small wooden houses inside the castle. In 1953, with the instruction of President Celal Bayar, three Turkish women architects Cahide Tamer, Selma Emler and Mualla Eyüboğlu Anhegger started to work on the restoration of the fortress, the wooden houses in the castle were demolished and restored.

    Anatolian Fortress
    Anatolian Fortress; In the Anatoluhisarı district of Istanbul, Göksu Creek is the place where the Bosphorus is laid. It was constructed by Yildirim Bayezit on an area of ​​7,000 square meters and at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus, at a distance of 660 meters.
    The Genoese were union with the Byzantines and had established colonies in the Black Sea (Kefe, Sinop and Amasra). For this reason, the passage of the Bosphorus was vital for the Genoese. The same was the case for the Ottomans. On the opposite shore, the Rumeli Fortress located on the European side of Istanbul is between the years 1451-1452. It was built by Mehmed to control the passage of the ships of these foreign nations. When Fatih Sultan Mehmed built his Rumeli Fortress, he added outer fortifications to this fortress.
    Anadolu Hisarı consists of inner and outer castles and the walls of these monuments. The inner castle is a rectangular four-storey house. When it was first built, there was no entrance gate, so the tower was entered through a suspension bridge that extended to the inner castle walls. The upper floors were also climbed with wooden stairs inside.
    The inner castle walls combine the northeastern and northwest corners of the outer castle. These walls are three meters thick. There are many arches and three towers built to protect the fortifications on the outer castle walls that join the inner walls. The actual city walls are 65 meters in the east-west direction; North-south direction. The thickness of the walls is 2.5 meters. The outer walls have orifices where the balls are placed. Block stones filled with mortar are used in the main building and inside walls of Anadolu Castle.
    Anadolu Hisarı lost its military significance after the conquest of Istanbul and its surroundings became a residential area over time. Today, the road passes through the middle of the Anatolian Fortress, which is partly destroyed.

    Aynalikavak Kasrı


    Kasimpasa Hasköy is not exactly known when it was built; According to Evliya Çelebi, it was built by the Captain-I Derya Halil Pasha in 1613 in another period.
    After the treaty of the Venetians leaving the Mora to the Turks through the poplar trees in the Aynalıkavak name garden and the Pasabakian Treaty, the Ottoman Sultan III. They come from the mirrors they give to Ahmet. The building was built on a sloping ground and the garden was decorated with various trees. It is entered from a veranda into the entrance space, and from there a large saloon is passing. Silk upholstery on three sides of the hall, on the walls on the blue background is written in gold gilds III. There is a poem belonging to Selim. The hall looks like a supply room with windows decorated with lines overlooking the garden on three sides with a dome on it.
    In the early 19th century, space was also known as the garden. Structure II. It was restored to Kirkor Balyan by Mahmut; The present form is the third one. Selim took it in time.
    Aynalikavak Kasrı has hosted many entertainments in the Tulip Era and the Aynalıkavak Treaty signed between the Ottoman State and Russia on 9 January 1784 by Abdulhamit I.
    Today, there is a research center and a museum on the lower floor of the kasr, where Turkish music instruments are exhibited and sometimes art music concerts are held.

    Beylerbeyi Palace


    In the second half of the 16th century, III. Murat's Rumeli Beylerbeyi Mehmet Pasha, where he built a yacht. Beylerbeyi's name also stands here. In the later periods, the space that participated in the Sultan's lands; In the first quarter of the 19th century, a wooden palace was built by II Mahmut. This palace is burned and replaced by the present-day Beylerbeyi Palace, the famous architect of the time Sarkis Balyan and his brother, for Abdulaziz. Completed in 1865, the palace is the palace of the Sultan's family. Beylerbeyi Palace is a palace of the Sultan's summer house, as well as a place hosted by foreign guests.
    The Garden of the Palace is decorated with trees, sculptures and pools. On the inside of the palace, a hall with pool, salute, harem and the flagship hall are striking. Also; Valide sultan room, dining room, reception room and blue hall are worth seeing in the interior. The palace has a total of 26 rooms and 6 rooms. Marble Pavilion and Yellow Pavilion in the garden of the palace II. It is said to have been built by Mahmut. The Yellow Pavilion was restored in the time of Abdulaziz. If there is a barn mansion on the side of the Bahçenin bridge; It was built for the Sultan's horses.
    After Abdulhamid was demoted, he was kept in custody in this Palace until 1918, when he died. Palace; During the Republican era, Atatürk also welcomes his guests. Today, the historical building converted into a museum is one of the most popular architects of the Anatolian side.
    Ciragan Palace


    The most beautiful places of the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus were allocated for sultans and important people for their palaces and mansions. Over time many of them have disappeared. Çırağan, a large palace, was burnt in 1910. It was built in 1871 by Sultan Abdulaziz the Palace Architect Serkis Balyan at a place of a former wooden palace. In four years, the work of four million gold was made of wood and the marble was covered in walls. Superior examples of stone workmanship were completed by columns, richly furnished spaces. The rooms were adorned with rare furniture, furnishings with golden gilding and mother of pearl pencils. Like the other palaces of the Bosphorus, Çırağan had many important meeting places. There were colorful pavilions with embroidered pavilions, abandoned doors and a bridge to the Star Palace on the back bank. The side of the street was surrounded by high walls. The ruins, which have been in ruins for years, have been renovated at the end of major repairs and have been transformed into a 5 star, beautiful hotel with the additions to the side.

    Dolmabahçe Palace


    Built in the 19th century by Sultan Abdülmecit I, the platform of the Dolmabahçe Palace stretches 600 m on the European shore of the Bosphorus. Dolmabahçe Palace was built between 1843-1856 as a mixture of European art styles. The work of Sultan Abdülmecit's work is the work of Karabet Balyan. The Ottoman Sultans had many palaces in every era. However, the main palace, Topkapi, was abandoned after the completion of the Dolmabahçe Palaces.

    Dolmabahçe Palace is three storey, symmetrical plan. There are 285 rooms and 43 rooms. There is a 600 meter dock from the sea and two abudevi doors, one of which is very fancy, on the land side. In the middle of this seaside palace surrounded by a well-kept and beautiful garden, there is a ceremony and a ballroom which is higher than the others. The large, 56-column reception hall amazes visitors with its enormous 4.5-ton crystal ballroom illuminated with 750 light.

    The reception side of the palace was used as the reception and negotiation of the Sultan, while the wing on the other side of the ceremony hall was used as the harem department. Interior decorations, furnishings, silk carpets and curtains, and all the other stuff are complete, as came from the original day-to-day. Dolmabahçe Palace has a richness and splendor that is not found in any existing palace. The walls and ceilings are painted with European artisans' paintings and tons of gold ornaments. Everything in the important rooms and lounges has the same color tone. All floors are covered with different, very ornate wooden parquet. The famous Hereke silk and woolen carpets are the most beautiful works of Turkish art, serilidir in many places. Occasional decorative handcraft works of Europe and Far East decorate the palace everywhere. The sparkling crystal chandelier, candlesticks and fireplaces show off their beauty in many rooms of the palace.

    This one is the greatest ballroom in whole palaces of the world. 36 m. The massive crystal chandelier hangs from its dome at an altitude of 4.5 tons. In important political meetings, this hall used for congratulations and balloons was warmed up with a furnace-like layout at the bottom. Saraya heating and electrical system have been added later. Six hammams It is decorated with marbles of alabaster which are beautiful, unmatched, in Selamlik section. The grand hall is divided into upper galleries for orchestras and diplomats.

    In the harem section, which is reached by passing through long corridors, there are sultan bedrooms and the section of the mother of the sultan and other women and servants departments. The northern extension part of the palace was allocated to the princes. Entrance is in the Beşiktaş district and serves as the Museum of Painting and Sculpture. During the Republican era, the most important event in the palace where Atatürk was used as residence during his visit to Istanbul was the death of Atatürk in 1938.

    Hidiv Kasrı

    The Italian architect Delfo Seminati, built in 1907 by the Egyptian Hidivi Abbas Hilmi Pasha, is built into the ruins of the Çubuklu ridge. The 1000 square meter building has an "art-nouveau" decoration style. Abbas Hilmi Pasha, who had been in talks with V. Mehmet Reşat in Istanbul while declaring Egypt's independence, Taken from his post, he and his family settled in Hidiv Kasrı in Istanbul.
    There is a marble fountain in the middle of the main entrance of Hidiv Kasrı. Do this by watching other fountains and pools inside. The connections between the cabin halls draw circles around the pool and this circle is cut only in the entrance hall. Tavansa is covered with stained glass.
    There are two large bedrooms in a circular piece on top of the fireplace on the entrance floor; Lamps, interior toilet and bathrooms. Another feature of the building is; It is the tower where half of the Bosphorus can be watched. Both elevator and staircase are accessible, with a middle floor with balcony and an open terrace.
    Kasır was purchased by the Municipality of Istanbul after Hidiv left Istanbul in the 1930s, but not between 1937-1982. It was only occasionally given to rent for filming, but at this time it was very disgusted and even the very precious stained glass on the ceiling broke so that even enough light would come out. In 1982, the restoration was initiated by the Turkish Turing and Automobile Authority; After two years of work, in 1984, the hotel served as a restaurant and a cafe.
    Hidiv Kasrı, which is operated as a restaurant by Beltur affiliated to Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality today, Weddings, seminars and meetings are also hosted.

    Ihlamur Kasrı
    Ihlamur Kasrı has an area of ​​25 thousand square meters; Besiktas is located on the junction of Nüzhetiye Caddesi, between Ihlamur and Teşvikiye. In some sources; In the middle of the 18th century, a pavilion belonging to Hüseyin Efendi was written; At the beginning of the same century III. The two bridges made by Ahmet in the linden of the unique garden are mentioned. However, between 1849 and 1855, existing buildings were demolished and replaced by Abdülmecit to build the mosques of today's Balyan.
    Ihlamur Kasrı, Maiyet Köşkü and Merasim Köşkü. Maiyet Köşkü is in a more plain appearance than the Ceramics Köşküne; It was generally used for the Sultan and the harem women. Today a nice cafeteria serves here. Merasim Mansion is; Baroque style ornamented with ornaments. The ceilings are covered with landscape paintings, the porcelain used in the decorations of the firemen, the products of the star furnace. Mansion; The crystal hunts are decorated in European style with many furnishings, Hereke carpets and ornate vases.
    Abdulaziz; In the garden of this casket, he had wrestling competitions, coach and cock fighting. I. Abdulmecit hosted the famous French poet Lamartine here; In addition, V. Mehmet Reşat accepted the presence of the foreign state where the statesmen of Bulgaria and Serbia were present.
    It was transformed into the Kasr, which was not used for a long time in the Republican period, in 1952, the Merazim Köşkü Tanzimat Museum and the Maiyet Köşkü in the Historical Köşkler Museum. It was removed from being a museum for a while and was completely restored in the 1980s. In 1987, with its garden, it opened its doors to its guests.

    Tekfur Palace
    Between Edirnekapı and Eğrikapı, there is no definite information about when the Tekfur Palace next to the city walls was built. In some sources it is written that the Byzantine Emperor Porphyrogenetos built in the 10th century and that it was actually the addition of another palace available. In some sources; It was built in the 13th and 14th centuries as an extension of the Blakhernai Palace.
    The palace remained a ruin for some time after the Ottoman conquest of Istanbul. A zoo was built here in the late 17th century. According to John Sanderson, who came to Istanbul in the 16th century, Busheque went to the zoo garden to see the zoo in the zoo. When you hear that Zürraf died a few days ago; In Europe, he had to dig his grave to see this animal he'd never seen before. In the 18th century, the place used as ceramic production was transformed into bottle and glass manufacturing in the 19th century. Also; The famous Kaşıkçı Elması was found in the garbage there.
    Today, excavations of art history are continuing in the structure organized around the municipality.

    Smallwater Palace
    Küçüksu Kasrı is a cottage near Istanbul in Bosphorus. It is located in the district of Beykoz in Istanbul. It is very close to Küçüksu Kasrı Anadolu Hisarı and Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (second Bosphorus Bridge). For Küçüksuk Kasrı, it is also called Küçüksu Palace, Küçüksu Pavilion, Göksu Palace, Göksu Pavilion or Göksu Kasrı.
    During the reign of Sultan Mahmud I (1730-1754), Divittar Mehmed Pasha built two wooden pavilions for the sultan at the sea side in Küçüksu.
    This pavilion was restored and Sultan III. Selim (1789 - 1807) and Sultan II. Mahmut (1808 - 1839) was also used by these sultans during his time.
    Sultan Abdulmecid (1839 - 1861) ordered the demolition of this old wooden building which was here, and replaced it with the Küçüksu Kasrı.
    Küçüksu Kasrı, which was opened in 1857, is a three-storey building including the basement.
    The fourth room on the first and second floors opens onto a central saloon in line with the traditional Turkish house plan. And Küçüksuk Kasrı was used as a boarding pass by the Sultan for daytime visits.
    After the establishment of the modern Turkish Republic in 1923, Küçüksu Kasrı became a frequent destination for Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. While Ataturk was in Istanbul, he used Küçüksu Kasrı to come and work or rest.
    In 1925, Küçüksu Kasrı was given the patronage of the then National Turkish Grand National Assembly Directorate of National Palaces. Küçüksu Kasrı, which was also used as a state guest house, was also allocated to state administrators of other countries until the 1970s.
    The Small Palace opened in 1983.
    The tiny Kasr visit hours are between 09:00 and 16:00 in November-March and between 09:00 and 17:00 in April-October.
    The small Kasrı is open to visitors on other days of the week except Mondays and Thursdays.

    Adile Sultan Palace
    Adile Sultan Palace, located in Kandilli, was built by Sultan Abdulaziz in 1876 in Sarkis Balyan. The park surrounding the palace is entered through the door on the coastal road. Before the death of Adile Sultan, the palace was donated to National Education in 1899 with the request of a girl school. It was restored after a major fire during the period when it was used as Kandilli Girls' High School.
    The film of the famous Turkish Films of the Cuban Class was realized here.
    Currently the restaurant is being used by the Sakıp Sabancı Cultural Center.
    Sakıp Sabancı Kandilli Education and Culture Center - Adile Sultan Palace; Went into service in June 2006 to host prestigious invitations. The administration of Adile Sultan Palace is also run by UKTAŞ, which is also the operator of İstanbul Lütfi Kırdar.

    Maslak Kasrı
    Located on Büyükdere Caddesi, between the İstinye and Tarabya junctions; II. Built in the time of Mahmut, Abdülaziz period was completed with the joints. II. Abdülhamit used this mansion as resting and hunting pavilion and learned that V. Murat was reduced from the throne and that he was the new ruler of the Ottoman Empire.
    Maslak Kasrı; Kasr-ı Hümayun, Mabeyn-i Hümayun, Paşalar Circle, Çadır Köşkü and a canton. Abdulhamit's brigands are in different places of the mansion, which is more plain than the other Ottoman constructions.
    Kasr-ı Hümayun: There are working and bedroom rooms of Sultan Abdülhamit in this cave. The two-storey building also has roof and basement floors. The entrance has pillars on both sides and a balcony on these pillars. The ceilings of all the rooms and the walls of the room are decorated with colorful pencil work paintings.
    Mabeyn-i Hümayun: Small, single storey and mughal structure; It's the Sultan's private apartment. From here you can reach the harbor; Very valuable plants, camellias, fern trees, bananas and a nice glass floor with a pool in the middle.
    Çadır Köşk: It is an octagonal plan, two storeys, wide eaves in the roof, a balcony that is surrounded and an attractive place with wooden workmanship.
    The Pasha District: It is a cozy structure built as a single-storey and masonry building and houses a bathhouse.


    Double Palaces
    It is the Cemile Sultan Palace which is close to the Molla Çelebi Mosque from the Double Palace.
    The construction of the palace was completed six months after the wedding of Cemile Sultan, who was married to Mahmut Celaleddin Pasha. Cemile Sultan, who lived in the Egyptian Ibrahim Pasha's Yacht in Emirgan, lived in this palace from April 1859. In the last period of his life he left the palace on the advice of doctors, first in Göztepe and then in Erenköy.
    After Cemile Sultan, Nazime Sultan and his wife Dervish Paşazade Ahmet Pasha from Abdulaziz's daughters lived in this palace for a while.
    After the destruction of the Çırağan Palace used as the Meclis-i Mebusan building in 1910, Cemile Sultan Palace was purchased from the Nazime Sultan's heirs to be used as Meclis-i Mebusan and Meclis-i Ayan; In 1913-1920, he functioned as a parliamentary building and witnessed the last parliamentary sessions during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
    After the announcement of the Republic of Turkey, some of the Independence Court cases were seen in this building. The case in which the famous journalists Huseyin Cahit (Yalçın), İkdamcı Ahmet Cevdet (Oran), Walid Ebüzziya's trial against the homicide betrayal were carried out in this building on 15-31 December 1923.
    From 1926 onwards, the Fine Arts Academy moved to Cemile Sultan Palace, but the palace was devastated by a fire in 1948. The palace, which was rebuilt in the direction of the project prepared by Sedat Hakkı Eldem and Mehmet Ali Handan, started to be used as a part of the Fine Arts Academy since 1953.
    The hall, formerly used as the Ottoman Parliament's Meclis-i Mebusan Hall and the Istiklal Court Hall, is now used as the Conference Hall

    The Twin Palace was allocated to the Munire Sultan who was in the direction of Tophane.
    After the death of Munire Sultan, who was only 18 years old in 1882, the palace was first assigned to Abdülmecit's sister Adile Sultan after the daughter of Abdulaziz Saliha Sultan (1862-1941). (Some sources refer to Adile Sultan first, then Saliha Sultan). The palace, which is also known as "Adile Sultan Palace", passed to Ahmed Zülküf Pasha, the son-in-law of Abdulaziz after the death of Adile Sultan in 1899.
    After the establishment of the Republic of Turkey III. The building, which was used as the headquarters of the Corps Command, later served as the College of Literature of Istanbul University and as a girl high school.
    The building was transferred to the Fine Arts Academy in 1969. It was rebuilt with the project of Sedat Hakkı Eldem and from 1975 on 21 November 1975 the education was opened.



    Feriye Palaces
    Feria Feria Palace or the Palace of current along the Ciragan Caddesi Besiktas district of Istanbul Bosphorus in Ortakoy district, the coast is the former name of Ottoman palaces. Today the palaces are being used by various institutions for educational purposes.
    The first palace Dolmabahce Palace built for the Ottoman dynasty in Istanbul Bosphorus coast and then made Ciragan Palace Ciragan additional buildings of the Ottoman family yetmeyin century palace in the coastal strip between Ortaköy Mosque was built. This building, built by Balyan family member architects, is called the Feriye Palaces meaning secondary buildings or side buildings.
    On the sea side there are additional buildings on the roadside behind the group of buildings consisting of three main buildings, a carousel ward and a small two-storey building. In these palaces, the dynasties that the sultan approves and the ones who did not have the winter house sat. The palaces are approximately 3,000,000 square meters in size.
    After staying on May 30, 1876 coup deposed Abdul Aziz 4 days with the Topkapi Palace, the palace was transferred to the Feria because not satisfied where it left off. However, on the 4th of June 1876, the palace, which had been built after a short time after being placed in the palace of Feriye, was found to have been cut off as a result of its wrists. Various members of the Ottoman dynasty lived in these palaces on March 3, 1924, until the lifting of the Halifali. It was decided to use the dynasties' palaces, which had been vacated for a while after being taken abroad, on the side of educational institutions. In 1927, the High Maritime School was set up in a part of the buildings. Kabataş Boys' High School moved to another part of the Feriye Palaces in 1928-1929 school year. In 1967, Galatasaray High School received a girl student and a part of the Feriye Sarayları was used as the girl section of the language. Another part of the buildings near the Ortaköy Mosque was left unattended for many years.
    Today, Kabataş Boys' High School is still teaching in the buildings that it has been using since 1928. Galatasaray High School is used as the girl section of the building since 1992 is the first part of Galatasaray University is used. In 1981 he moved to the Maritime High School in Tuzla, Istanbul Technical University Maritime Faculty in building upon becoming discharged since 1982 Seafood Ziya Kalkavan Anatolian Vocational High School began to serve. Another part of the palace which had been left empty for many years in a neglected state was opened to service as the Feriye Restaurant after being restored by Kabataş Education Foundation in 1995.

    Ibrahim Pasha Palace
    Ibrahim Pasha Palace, Suleiman the Magnificent and the second son of the queen, which Pargalı Damat İbrahim Paşa Palace in Istanbul is in Sultanahmet Square. Abraham Pasha's Palace, known as the Palace of the Earliest, was married to Sister Suleiman the Magnificent and then started to be called Ibrahim Pasha Palace. Today it is used as Museum of Turkish and Islamic Works.
    İbrahim Paşa Palace, one of the most important examples of 16th century Ottoman civil architecture, ascends on the stages of the historical hypodrama extending to the Roman Period. 18th century. According to the Ottoman historian Solakzade, the date of construction of the palace is not completely known, It coincides with the Bayezid period. (1481-1512). It is also known that he was repaired in 1521 at the time of Kanuni. bigger and more magnificent is written by Ibrahim Pasha Palace of Topkapi's Historic Palace, many weddings, as festivities and celebrations, as well, mixed periods and rebellion to the scene been, Ibrahim Pasha, the strangled by Hürrem Sultan rumor in 1536 (the blood of the sultan's family These types of people have always been strangled in history, since they are out of the decree as procedural methods.) Then they were named with the same name and used in other viziers, such as barracks, embassy palace, notebook, mehterhane, sewerage and prison.



    Sile
    Şile is a district of Istanbul. The settlement in the district is very old. It shows that the periphery of the chile is ruled before the date (Polished Stone Age). In the studies related to the pre-history of the Black Sea coast, various places of the Paleolithic era and many mansion places and workshops belonging to the Epi-Palaeolithic period have been identified. It is obvious from the increase in the number of finds that there is a significant population density on the Black Sea coastline in the post-glacial period (about 12,000 to 6,000 BC). In addition, there are many caves in the town that are suitable for the life of the people.

    The shilla were invaded twice in antiquity. The first invasion was carried out by Roman captain Lucullus, who was commanded by Xenophon on the way back from the Persian expedition of the ancient Greeks and the second followed by the shoreline. The traces of the Roman era are still seen in Şile.

    During the period of the Eastern Roman Emperor Diocletianus (284-305), such as İnkese, Sofular, Şile caverns have been sheltered for the first believers. Gürlek Cave was used as a prison, where the first believers captured by Eastern Roman troops captured Christians.

    The Seljuk Turks captured Şile in 1090 with Kutalmiyeoglu Süleyman Shah. In 1097, the 1st Crusaders took back the Sile from the Seljuks. The withdrawal of Sile was only possible during the period of Yıldırım Bayezid. For 500 years until the First World War, Şile led a comfortable life under the rule of the Turks. Later, with the invasion of Istanbul, the Greeks, who were encouraged by the English, settled around Şile and continued to occupy the Dumlupinar Victory. 19th century. According to the Ottoman records, the Chile incident was in 1846 due to the Mystery Mission. It is seen that in 1876, the collapse of the chile was attributed to Dersaadet Sehremaneti. In the 1877 State Salvation, Şile is connected to Üsküdar Mutasarrığlığına, which is attached to the Ministry of Captivity. When all provinces (mutasarrafflik) were made in 1924, Şile continued to be a loyal to Üsküdar. With the new arrangement made in 1926, Üsküdar became an accident and connected to the Istanbul province, and the Şile accident took place in the same structure as Üsküdar. In addition, Şile is one of the first municipalities formed with the foundation of the Republic.


    Ağva
    Agva means "village between two streams" and "water" in Latin. In the north of Istanbul, Göksu and Yeşilçay are a seaside town connected to the Şile District of Istanbul in the middle of their decks. The Göksu and Yeşilçay streams pass through Agva and fall into the Black Sea. Yeşilçay is the venue of the fishing boats. On the banks of the Göksu there are the hotels. Canoe or sea bike ride on the skyline. A few hours of motorboat rides can be organized. 12 km. Distant Hacil village, famous for its caves and waterfalls. Cove and Kadırga koyl are very convenient for hiking. A resort town that can be visited for 4 seasons. It is worth seeing that the 3 km long golden wreath, fine sandy, gleaming wretched ground. Because the settlement is far from the beach, behind the pine trees, the sea and coast are always clean. You can take a picnic and go to the sea in Kadırga and the Idyllic Koylar, which are only 10-15 minutes away from Ağva and departed from Kandıra road. There is also a tiny koiler that can only be reached from the sea in Agva. The waterfall on Teke road is just 5 km away from Agva. While Agva's open-air museum resembles a white-brimmed bride from the sea, the Gelin Kayası resembles a hodge-podge look from the land. You can watch these beautiful places closely by holding a motorized boat and following the coast. In the winter months, private conversations in the private spaces of the place, at the fireplace, cost a life time. The beauties of the spring months are not told to describe. Because in the spring months you can see all the colors of nature in Agva, creating a fascinating landscape. Agva is also a very fertile place for those who want to fish. The two rivers and the sea do not leave the fishermen empty. The turtle, antelope, wolf, coyote, wild boar, fox, squirrel, many bird species are especially suitable for hunting the Avalon, which also hosts the kingfisher. The different beauties of Agva also walk on the healing beach, which is said to be breathing clean air and good for rheumatic diseases. You can sit on the edge of the creek, under the trees, on the cushions, on the banks of the river with canoe and sea bikes, in the bungalows you can relax among the birds ... You are the closest to Istanbul but far away from the city complex.


    Şile Lighthouse
    Şile Lighthouse is the sea lighthouse located in the Şile district of Istanbul and serving the Bosphorus and the Black Sea. It is the biggest of Turkey and the second largest in the world.
    Şile Lighthouse, one of the two lighthouses in the Black Sea, was built in 1859 at the time of the Ottoman Empire. The lighthouse is 110 cm above the rocks 60 meters above sea level. Built in the shape of a tower in the thickness. The lantern with a 20-mile sight distance and a set-up system started working with electricity in 1968 while working with a 3-gas gas lamp in the early periods. Today, the lighthouse building and garden department, which is actively working, also serves as a museum.

    Hidden Paradise - Hidden Lake
    It is a small irrigation pond located near Karamandere village near Şile village. Hidden Paradise is a lake in the Yada Hidden Lake, Karamandere is known by the names of the pond. The pond made for the irrigation of the agricultural land around the DSI side is one of the important stopping places for nature lovers with its surrounding forest texture. Go to the pond and surroundings; Walking, fishing, picnicking.


    Polonezköy
    Polonezköy is a famous Polak village, formerly Adampol, located in the Beykoz district of Istanbul. Polonezköy was founded in 1842 by Prince Adam Czartoryski, the head of government during the Polish uprising of 1830, and later the political leader of the Polish exiles. The name of the village is derived from Adam, the name of the founder, as Adamköy (Polish: Adampol). The land in which the village was located was organized by the Lazarist priests who ruled Saint Benoit French High School in the 1830s as a farm. At that time, the political immigration of the Poles was central to Paris. The aim of Prince Adam Czartoryski was to establish a second political center within the borders of the Ottoman State. For this purpose Michal Czajkowski was sent to the Ottoman State as a representative. After arriving in Istanbul, Czajkowski, who accepted Islam in 1850 and named Mehmed Sadiq Pasha, purchased a forested land from the Lazarian priests operating in the Ottoman Empire in the future to install Adampol. At first, however, the nesting residence of 12 people settled down to 220 during the most recent years. Over the years Polonezkoy / Adampol has developed, the population of the village increased with the Poles, who escaped from the Siberian exile and Circassian captivity, as well as the soldiers who participated in the 1830 Polish Uprising and the 1853 Crimean War. The first residents of Polonezkoy were engaged in farming, animal husbandry and forestry. More II. Starting from World War II, the first holidaymakers started to come to Polonezköy. In 1938 residents of Polonezkoy T.C. They were accepted to their citizenship. In 1968, residents of Polonezkoy were entitled to a title deed on the territory they operated. On the other hand, the inheritors of the Czartoryski family are abandoned in favor of possession of Polonezkoy.


    Miniatürk
    Miniatürk or Miniature Turkey Park is the largest miniature park in the world with 60,000 square meters of models of various works in Turkey. Miniatürk is located in an old park located on the Golden Horn. On June 30, 2001, Miniatürk was launched on May 2, 2003. There are 105 artworks in the park. These are historical buildings and building communities selected from Turkey. In the upper left part of the park (according to entrance) there are also some buildings from the world. Some buildings such as the Temple of Artemis and the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, which are not standing today, were built according to their predicted appearance.

    Pierre Loti
    Eyüp Sultan begins to climb the long stairs through the cemetery next to the Mosque, the Golden Horn is watching the one hand, while you breathe in the mystical atmosphere of tranquility that spring. At the end of the trip, the date of your disappearance is Pierre Loti Kahvesi. A few hundred years of history of coffee will fetch you with a wonderful view to ancient times, the Genoese to, leading to the Ottoman .. until the end of the 19th century, Rabia Women, known as the coffeehouse, French writer Pierre Loti coffee after you start holding space Pierre Loti called Coffee coffee for years, lovers, its own The stop of those who want to meet and escape from the city and enjoy a spiritual peace. Pierre Loti is a famous French writer and orientalist who lived between 1850 and 1923. Loti, a naval officer, first came to Turkey in 1876 and stayed a year. She also discovered the historic coffee on the backs of Eyüp. The Golden Horn is not known, but Pierre Loti's other attraction is a married Ottoman lady named Aziyade.
    For many years it has been said that there is a great love between Pierre Loti and Aziyade, who is said to be married in France. Pierre Loti did not hide his love for Aziyade in his same name novel. That day, today, the name of the cup named Pierre Loti. The top of the tomb is called the Pierre Loti Tepi, the memorial of Loti.


    Fatih Mosque and Tomb
    Fatih Mosque and Complex is a mosque and mosque built by Fatih Sultan Mehmed at the Fatih district of Istanbul. Kulliye has 16 medrese, hospital, hospital (housewife) imarethane (soup kitchen), library and hammam. It was built on one of the seven hills of the city. The mosque was restored after its collapse in the 1766 earthquake and was restored in 1771. 1999 Gölcük in 2008 in the mosque detected shifts in the ground floor of the Earthquake Foundations strengthening and restoration work was started by the Directorate General and is therefore open to worship as partial.



    Eyüp Sultan Mosque
    The Eyüp Sultan Mosque is located in the Eyüp district of Istanbul along the Golden Horn. Beyond being a mosque, it is a sacred place of visit. Eyüp Sultan Mosque is a rectangular planar, mihrabı protruding. Central dome rests on six columns and two great pillars of müstenit belt, around half dome, in the middle of the tomb of Eyüp Sultan, a fountain at the foot of the sarcophagus is located in the middle of a centuries-old plane tree courtyard.

    Koç Museum
    Rahmi M. Koç Museum is the first important museum dedicated to the history of Transport, Industry and Communication in Turkey. On the shores of the Golden Horn, it contains thousands of items ranging from ships and aircraft in actual size phonograph needle Located collection of magnificent buildings that are leading examples of industrial archeology. The museum is quite ambitious with its location, historical location and close proximity to both sides of Istanbul. worldwide appreciation of the museum, the site was created by talented engineers and craftsmen are caused by objects that reflect the human genius and industriousness.


    Suleymaniye Mosque
    Süleymaniye Mosque, the name of Süleyman I, was built by Mimar Sinan in Istanbul between 1551-1557. The Suleymaniye Mosque, which is considered as the monumental work of the architect Sinan, was built as part of the Süleymaniye Complex, consisting of medresses, a library, a hospital, a mosque, hamam, imaret, hazire and shops.
    Süleymaniye Mosque is one of the most important examples of Classical Ottoman Architecture. Despite the earthquake in Istanbul, there is not a slight crack in the walls of the glass. The dome of the glass sitting on four elephant feet is 53 m. It is 27.5 m in diameter. This main dome is supported by two half domes, as seen in Hagia Sophia. There are 32 windows in the dome. There are minarets on the four corners of the mosque courtyard. Two of these minarets adjoin the basement are three-pronged and 76 m. The other two minarets on the corner of the entry ceiling wall on the northern edge of the mosque's courtyard are two-tiered and 56 m. in height. The mosque has been constructed in accordance with the air flow that will clean the oil lamps inside. The mosque has been constructed to create an air current in the mosque that allows the oil lamps to be collected at a single point. The works from the glass are collected in the room above the main entrance door and these are used for making ink. There is a rectangular fountain in the middle of the mosque courtyard, surrounded by 28 elephants, main and supporting dome supported by elephant feet. On the side of the chapel of the glass, there is a junior where Kanuni Sultan Süleyman and his wife Hürrem Sultan are present. In order to give the image of the sky featuring the domed stars of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman's turban, it was adorned with diamonds (diamonds) placed between the metal plates.
    Etymology
    Istanbul has been given different names throughout the ages. These city names are associated with different periods of city history. These names are, in historical order, Byzantion, Augusta Antonina, Nova Roma, Constantinople, Constantinople, and today's Istanbul names.

    Byzantium
    Byzantion (Greek: Βυζάντιον, Latin: Byzantium) is the first known name of Istanbul. B.C. 667 Dorli from Megara city state in ancient Greece Greek settlers established a colony on today's Istanbul and the new colony or Byzantas king Byzas (Greek: Βύζας or Βύζαντας) honor they gave the name Byzantium.

    Byzantium

    The original name of Byzantion is M.S. In the 1 st century, when the city seized the Romans, they were latched by them.

    Augusta Antonina

    Augusta Antonina is the short name of the city that Istanbul put in honor of his son Antonius (next Roman Emperor Caracalla) by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus at the beginning of the 3rd century.

    Nova Roma

    A.D. In 330 the Roman Emperor Constantine by the city of the Roman Empire's capital was declared, the city is Latin for "New Rome" Nova, which means Rome (Greek: Νέα Ρώμη, Near Rome) put his name and has tried to encourage this name is not adopted this name at all.

    Constantinople

    However, M.S. In 337 Emperor Konstantin Un the city's name with the death of his honor "the city of Constantine," which means to Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις, Konstantinoupolis, Latinceleştiril were: Constantinople) was translated. Constantinople remained the official name of the city during the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. But Constantinople was referred to by the inhabitants of the city as the only Greek "city" (Πόλιν, Polis).
    Even after the conquest of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire, Constantinople remained the most common name used in the West. Even after the establishment of the Turkish Republic on October 29, 1923, the name of Constantinople continued to be used by Westerners for almost the first seven years of the Republic.

    Constantinople

    Konstantiniyye (Arabic: القسطنطينية, al-Qusṭanṭiniyah, Ottoman Turkish: قسطنطينيه, Konstantiniyye), is a form of Arabic and the city of Constantinople came to be known in the Islamic world and was the most commonly used name. Contrary to Constantinople, which means "the city of Constantine" in Greek, Constantine means "place of Constantine" in Arabic.
    After the conquest in 1453, the city of the Ottoman Empire was proclaimed the fourth capital and Konstantiniyye was used as the official name of the city by the Ottoman Empire and until the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1923, most of the time stayed at the use of this name. For example, the Ottoman Empire and the courts, to indicate the source of the official documents published in Constantinople, "ba-Authority-i-reign Darü's-i-Mahmiyy to Kostantiniyyetü'l-Mahrusâtü'l" was used as titles.
    However, in some periods the Ottoman authorities were from other names for the city. Especially for the city and for the diplomatic correspondence to define the Ottoman government, these glorious names were used synonymously and
    encouraged:

    Dersaadet (Arabic: در سعادت, "Happiness Gate")
    Derâliye (Arabic: در عاليه, "The Great Gate")
    Bab-i Âli (Arabic: باب عالی, "The Great Gate")
    Pâyitaht (Persian: پایتخت, "Throne of the Foot" or "Capital")
    Acidane (Persian: آستانه, "The State's Threshold").

    Istanbul
    Etymologically, the origin of the name of Istanbul (Turkish pronunciation: [istanbuɫ], and sometimes [ɯstambuɫ] among the people) in the Middle Ages (Byzantine) Yunan meaning "in the city" or "in the city" (Greek pronunciation: [εἰς τὴν Πόλιν ], [Isin polin]) was formed by Turkishization of the words.

    The name of Istanbul has been in Arab sources since the 10th century (in different forms) and in Turkish sources since the 11th century. Also, the name of Istanbul was used in Turkish before the 1453 conquest especially for the Turkish people among the Turkish people.

    In the Ottoman Empire, the name of Istanbul in the first period documents was Ottoman Turkish (استان, a-sitan or i-stan), and it means "ibis" in Arabic. In his last periodicals (استانبول, a-stan-bol or i-stan-bul).

    Although Istanbul was not an official name during the Ottoman period, it entered official documents and was frequently used. In addition, for the central army commander of Istanbul in the Ottoman Army officially the Istanbul branch and officially the title of Istanbul master for the highest civilian judge of Istanbul were used. This title later became prestigious and began to be used informally for cultured and mysterious Istanbulites.

    Even after the establishment of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923, the names of Constantinople continued to be used by Constantinople for almost the first seven years of the Republic and by Westerners abroad.

    However, on March 28, 1930, the name of the city was officially changed by the Turkish Postal Service Law and it was named Istanbul. The name Constantinopolis (and Constantinople) was completely abolished. In addition, the Turkish authorities demanded that the name of Istanbul be used as the only name of the city in foreign languages ​​from foreigners and put it into practice. It was forbidden to use the name "Constantinopolis" in letters or other correspondence and in international areas after the Republican period was declared the official and international name of the city of Istanbul. For example, if the letters sent from abroad to Istanbul were written as "Konstantinopolis" (even if they were written in Istanbul by the side) as addresses, these letters began to be sent back.
    History
    Istanbul is a world city located at the intersection of European and Asian continents extending from the settlement date of the last excavations in Yenikapı to 8500 years in the direction of the port, urban history is about 3 thousand and the capital is 1600 years old. The city has been home to different civilizations and cultures throughout the ages and has been a unique mosaic in the historical process, preserving the cosmopolitan and metropolitan structure where various religions, languages ​​and racial people lived together for centuries. One of the few places in the world that has managed to stay in power and to be central to every area over a long period of time, Istanbul is a world capital of the past.

    Istanbul's historic outlines can be divided into five major revolutions:
    Prehistoric era
    Byzantion period
    The period of Constantinople
    Constantinian period
    Istanbul period

    Prehistoric ages

    The history of Istanbul dates back to three hundred thousand years ago. The excavations in the Yarımburgaz cave on the edge of Kucukcekmece Lake revealed the first traces of human cultures. Neolithic and Chalcolithic people are believed to live in this period around the lake. Excavations in various periods found the Lower Paleolithic Age near Dudullu and the Middle Palaeolithic and Upper Palaeolithic ages in the vicinity of Ağaçlı.

    Foundation period and Byzantion

    During the excavations at the Fikirtepe on the Anatolian side of the city where the remains of the Polished Stone Age lasted for 6500 BC during the excavations of the Marmaray tube passage for the Istanbul metro in 2008, there were remains dating back to the Copper Age from 5500-3500 BC . In addition, the remnants belonging to Phoenician were found in Kadıköy. Traklar founded the city of Semistra near the city in the 13th century BC and the 11th century BC. At the time of King Lygos, an acropolis was established in Sarayburnu, where today's Topkapi Palace is located. Greeks from Megara in 685 BC set up a colony here, Byzantion was established in 667 BC, when King Byzas ruled. When the city was ruled by the Roman Empire, the city's name was Septimius Severus, and his son's name was named Augusta Antonina for a brief period. Then, during the time of Emperor Constantine I, the city was declared the capital of the Roman Empire. At the same time, the name of the city changed to Nova Roma, and in 337 Emperor Constantine I was converted to Constantinople by the death of Constantine.


    During the Byzantine Empire

    This period covered between 324 and 1453. After Constantine I conquered the city and made it the capital of the Roman Empire, the city was also the administrative center of Rome's east. The Roman population increased significantly in this period, including the migration of Roman nobility. In this period; The city has expanded considerably with a new architecture. A hippodrome of 100,000 people (Sultanahmet Square), as well as ports and water facilities were built.
    During the period of Constantinus the city was named Nova Roma dese; On May 11, 330, the name of the city was Constantinople. Constantine founded Hagia Sophia, the world's largest cathedral in 360 BC; And thus changed the religion of the Roman Empire to Christianity. The first break with the western belief in Pagan Roman religion began in this period. Although, Beginning with the death of the Byzantine Empire I. Theodosius; The Byzantine Empire Constantine regarded him as a Byzantine Emperor because of his respect for Christianity; Until the collapse in 1453, the 10 Emperors became the more famous Constantine. The role of Istanbul in this period was quite strategic; It was a gate between Europe and Asia. On this occasion, it was a center for trade, culture and diplomacy. In this period, the name of the city was "Poli" (city).
    After the fall of Western Rome in 476; A large majority of the Romans in the Western Roman Empire migrated here, and the capital of the Byzantine Empire was Istanbul. After the plague epidemic, which caused the death of half the population in 543; The city was rebuilt during the reign of Emperor Justinian I.
    The city was attacked by Sasan and Avarlar in 700 years; 800 years of Bulgarians and Arabs, 900 years of Russians and Bulgars attacked years.
    But; The most devastating among the attacks was in 1204. By the Crusaders; 4. The city that was seized in the Crusade in 1204 was looted; A large majority of the population fled from the city; Poor and transformed into a city in wreckage. That is why the Latins growing in Western Rome; They are the differences and incongruities between the Catholic Christianity and the Orthodox Christianity in Byzantium. After this period, in 1261 Palailogos Dynasty; Michael VIII Palaeologus recaptured the city and concluded the Latin period.
    After this period, Byzantine was gradually shrinking; It was begun to be besieged by the Ottoman Empire after 1391; Eventually passed on to the Ottoman Empire in 29 May 1453. The conquest of Istanbul symbolizes the end of the Middle Ages in the history of the world.
    Constantine, the last emperor of Byzantium, defended Istanbul well before the conquest. Grejvar, which burned even when it was burning, made sea cruises difficult. The strength of the shrines made it difficult to enter the city by 70-80%. But Fatih Sultan Mehmet had a new era with success.
    The period of the Ottoman Empire [edit] This period included between 1453 and 1923. On 29 May 1453; After the siege of Fatih Sultan Mehmet, the sultan of the Ottoman Empire for 53 days; Istanbul was the third and last capital of the Ottoman Empire.
    After the capture of the Ottomans; After the establishment of the Topkapi Palace and the Grand Bazaar, many schools and baths were opened. It was a cosmopolitan society where Jews, Christians, and Muslims lived together in the city where people from all over the world and the Empire moved. Remains of the Byzantine period, old buildings and walls were repaired. 50 years after the conquest; In Istanbul, which has become one of the largest cities in the world, it is called "Little Doomsday" 14 September 1509 Istanbul After the earthquake (claimed to be 8 magnitude); Thousands of buildings were destroyed with 45 days of aftershocks, and many people lost their lives.
    In 1510; Sultan II. Bayezid; With 80,000 people working, the city rebuilt. A great majority of the works still exist today. During the reign of Süleyman the Magnificent, who built the monuments and other buildings of the architect Sinan; Architecture and art. During the Tulip Revolution; Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Paşa Since 1718; Set up the fire department, opened the first printing house and set up factories. After the Tanzimat Fermanı which was declared on November 3, 1839, westernization process accelerated and many innovations took place.
    Bridge over the Golden Horn; Istanbul, which has become a modern city with the construction of tunnels, railways, sea transportation within the city, municipal organizations and hospitals to Karaköy, has again suffered a great deal with the Üçyüzon Earthquake in 1894. In the end of World War I, on the 13th of November 1918, it was also occupied by the Entente States navy. [38] Istanbul's 2500-year-old capital city ended on October 29, 1923.
    In the Ottoman and Byzantine records, while the siege of Istanbul in the period of Yıldırım Bayezid was removed in 1402, 760 houses from Göynük and Tarakli were placed in Manav Istanbul in accordance with the condition of establishing a Turkish neighborhood in Sirkeci. In other words, it is also confirmed that the first indigenous Turks settled in Istanbul are the Groceries going from this region. Especially the origin of the Turks on the Anatolian side are the groceries.

    Republican period

    Between the years of 1923-1950 after the Republic, there were physical breakthroughs. The population of 1 million at the beginning of the 1900s fell to 690,000 in 1927, 740,000 in 1935, and again reached 900,000 in 1945. In the 1950s, when the immigration from the Balkans took place, urbanism became the frontier of urbanism in this period. In the 1960s, apartment building began with the slums. In the 1970s, rapid population growth and housing and transportation problems gained importance. The increase in the number of automobiles in this period and the increase of traffic as a result was effective in the construction of the Bosphorus Bridge and a significant point was reached in transportation. The metropolitan area of ​​Istanbul reached a radius of 60 kilometers in 1980, while it was 50 kilometers in the center between 1970 and 1975. Population growth in the 1990s resulted in the population spreading to the outside world, and as a result, the IETT was inadequate and minibuses tried to close the gap. The Bosphorus Bridge was opened in 1973 in the city, where the development activities were revived, though not with the old pace in the 70's.

    Art

    When the city changed hands and worn many times, the city did not have much building belonging to the Roman Empire period. The most important of the remains were the monument erected in 330 in honor of Emperor Constantine I, one of the seven hills of the city. The column was formed by stacking a total of 8 columns and one column on top of each other, which were connected to each other by brackets weighing 3 tons and 3 meters in diameter. Bozdoğan Kemeri is another structure that has remained daily from this period. The construction of the city's water reserve system began during the reign of Emperor Hadrian. In the time of Constantine I, the city had to be further enlarged to meet the rapidly growing population need with the restructuring and growth of the city. Kemer took its place from the slopes of the hills between Kağıthane and the Sea of ​​Marmara to the city from the hilly regions of Thrace to the last point of the wide arches and channels system that met the water need of the city. This water, which came to town from that time, was stored in more than one hundred underground cisterns such as three open and Yerebatan Cisterns with a total capacity of more than 1 million cubic meters. Hippodrum Square, now known as Sultanahmet Square, was built by Circus Maximus.

    Ottoman Empire

    Art in the Ottoman is very advanced as an architect. Numerous works were made during the Imperial period. The construction is as dignified and majestic as it is simple and useful. The magnificent palace type came in from the West in the 19th century. However, the glass and the Tekkel made in the name of Allah are utterly abidevil. The chambers surround themselves with many social institutions and constitute a "complex". The Ottomans are extraordinary imams. Even if it does not belong to its civilization, keep it with care. One of the best examples of this is the Church of St. Irene. There are no empire corners that can not be seen. Some even modest neighborhood rich, it built a fountain repaired if it does not build a mosque or a school. The sense of community is extraordinarily strong. There is an alliance when one of the greatest architects of world history of Sinan is perhaps the first. Sinan, who lived for a century and spent the last half century as architect, has made these works. 81 mosques, 50 lest 55 medreses 19 tombs, 14 imaret, 3 hospitals, 7 dam (dam), eight bridges 16 kervansaray 33 palaces, 32 baths, cellar 6, 7 d'arulkurrâ. These 441 works were scattered throughout the whole empire. [46] In 1839, the declaration of the Tanzimat Fermanı took important steps towards Europeanization. Ottoman, 18 have adopted the European style towards the end of the century, and it was reflected in the architecture and art. Baroque style spreading in Europe is also suitable for making many works in Istanbul. Baroque and rococo with Dolmabahce Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace, and constitutes an important place for this kind of Ortakoy Mosque in the world.

    Geography

    Istanbul is located at 41 ° K, 29 ° D coordinates. The Çatalca Peninsula in the west and the Kocaeli Peninsula in the east. In the north the Black Sea, the city formed the southern Sea of ​​Marmara and cross the Bosporus, northwestern Tekirdag dependent Saray, west Tekirdag dependent Saray, Tekirdag, Corlu, Tekirdag, southwest Tekirdag connected M.Ereglisi, depending on the northeast in Kocaeli Kandira, depending on the eastern Gulf of Kocaeli, Kocaeli is connected to the southeast in Gebze with neighboring counties. Çatalca Europe and Kocaeli are the main pillars of Istanbul. The Bosphorus in the middle of the city combines these two continents. Fatih Sultan Mehmet and the Bosphorus Bridges on the Bosphorus connect the two sides of the city. It is located along the Bosphorus and around the Golden Horn in the north of Turkey.

    Geology

    The North Anatolian Fault Line, located near Istanbul, extends from North Anatolia to the Sea of ​​Marmara. Two tectonic plates, Eurasia and Africa, push each other and cause the fault to move. Due to this fault line, there have been very severe earthquakes in the region throughout history. The Great Istanbul Earthquake that took place in 1509 is the biggest example of this. This earthquake in Istanbul caused the destruction of 100 mosques and the loss of 10 thousand people's lives. In the earthquake of 1766, buildings like Topkapı Palace, Hagia Sophia, Eyüp Sultan Mosque and Grand Bazaar suffered great damage. In the 1999 Gölcük Earthquake, 18 thousand people died and many people were homeless. Seismologists state that they may be in an earthquake of size 7 before 2025.

    Climate

    Istanbul's climate is a climate that shows the transition between the Black Sea climate and the Mediterranean climate, so the climate of Istanbul is moderate. The summers of Istanbul are hot and humid; Winters are cold, rainy and sometimes snowy. Because of humidity, the air is warmer than it is hot; It may feel colder than it is cold. The average temperature in winter is around 2 ° C to 9 ° C, with rain and rain mixed with rain. Snow also rains. In the winter months it can snow for a couple of weeks. The average temperature in summer is around 18 ° C to 28 ° C and rain and flooding are common.
    The hottest months are July and August, the average temperature is 23 ° C, the coldest months are January and February, and the average temperature is 5 ° C. The average temperature in Istanbul is 13.7 degrees.
    Total annual precipitation is 843.9 mm and is observed throughout the year. 38% of the precipitation is in winter, 18% in spring, 13% in summer and 31% in autumn. Summer is the driest season, but unlike Mediterranean climates, there is no dry season. Istanbul has suffered from thirst until 1994 but there is no water stress with the measure taken.
    The highest air temperature so far; Was recorded at 40.5 ° C on July 12, 2000. The lowest air temperature is; On February 9, 1929, it was recorded as -16.1 ° C.
    The city is quite windy; The average speed of the wind is 17 km / h.

    Natural life

    In Istabul region which has a very rich plant community, about 2500 plant species such as boxwood, oak, plane, beech, hornbeam, maple, chestnut, pine, spruce and cypress are grown. Some of these plants are endemic to this locality. The trees that make up the forests are usually beech, chestnut and stalks which are seen around the northern part of Istanbul, the north of Alemdağ and around Polenezköy. In addition to the effect of climate on plant cover, there is an effect on the soil. While the areas of the beech tree community are covered with untreated brown forest soils, these soils are lime-free in the oak and chestnut community. Having around 2500 natural plant species, Istanbul is able to leave European countries such as England alone with this feature. At the same time, it means that about one-fourth of the naturally grown plants in Turkey are housed in Istanbul; And some of these plants are endemic, ie they live only in Istanbul on the whole world.
    In Istanbul, rich in animal life, rare mammals such as deer, wild boar, wild cat, wolf, jackal, lynx, bear and fox can be found. However, Istanbul, which is located on an important bird migration route, can observe various bird species such as stork, eagle, falcon and hawk every spring and autumn. The most common birds in Istanbul are the sparrow, pigeon, dove, crow and now the martian, which has become a symbol of the city.

    City Panaromas

    Istanbul has a total of 39 counties. 25 of these districts are on the European side and 14 are on the Anatolian side. The cities of Istanbul are divided into three main regions:

    Fatih and Eminönü, the historic peninsula of Old Istanbul (Eminönü is bound to the Fatih district by a law in 2008. Today the peninsula forms the Fatih district). The Golden Horn is located on the northern shores of this region. It stretches as far as the Istanbul Walls in the West. The southern border is the Sea of ​​Marmara. In the east there is the entrance of the Bosphorus.

    The districts of Beyoğlu and Beşiktaş in the north of the Golden Horn have a great history in terms of history. The palace of the last Ottoman Sultans is at the Dolmabahçe Palace in Kabatas. Along the banks of the Bosphorus, old neighborhoods such as Ortaköy and Bebek follow each other. On both sides of the city there are luxurious boats continuing the Bosphorus.
    Üsküdar (ancient Chrysopolis) and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) districts were changed in time from old cities to cities and they became the cities of Istanbul. It is the oldest districts of Istanbul on the Anatolian side. Today, many contemporary settlements and business districts have great precaution. The city is home to a third of its population.
    A great differentiation is seen from the historical districts of Istanbul to the west and north. The highest skyscrapers and office buildings are located on the European side, especially in Levent, Mecidiyeköy and Maslak, while the Anatolian side attracts the Kozyatağı district in Kadıköy district. The rapid growth of the city in the 20th century caused a great migration to the east and west. So the gecekondaşation in the city has gained a great speed. These buildings, built as escape treasures or private terrains, are made in a short time and low quality. These buildings are widespread in Ankara and Izmir which are among the biggest cities of Turkey. Gecekondular causes a great deal of urbanization.
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    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة Tour4Arabs; الساعة 08-16-2017, 06:55 PM.

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